The Influence of Autoclave Sterilization on the Resistance to Cyclic Fatigue of AF- F-ONE , ProTaper Ultimate, and ProTaper Gold NiTi Instruments (A Comparative Study)

Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of NiTi Instruments After Autoclave Sterilization


  • sarah najeeb college of dentistry
  • Maha Musaed Yahya Operative Department/College of dentistry/ Mustansiriyah University/Baghdad-Iraq
  • Haider Al-Waeli Assistant director of the graduate periodontics Program / Dalhousie University/ Canada



Cyclic fatigue, ProTaper Ultimate, AF-F ONE, autoclave sterilization, NiTi Instruments




        This investigation aimed to examine the impact of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of AF-F ONE, ProTaper Ultimate, and ProTaper Gold.

Materials and Methods:

        Sixty #25 rotary files were categorized into groups as follows: AF-F ONE (Group A), ProTaper Ultimate (Group B), and ProTaper Gold (Group C). Additionally, within each group, there were subdivisions into sterilized and non-sterilized subgroups. Sterilized instruments underwent five cycles of sterilization by autoclave. Cyclic fatigue resistance was evaluated using a simulated canal featuring a single curvature (60° angle, 5-mm radius). Files were operated until fracture, and time and number of cycles to fracture (NCF) were recorded.

Statistical analysis:

         One-way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey test, and independent t-test.


        ANOVA indicated a significant difference among non-sterilized groups (p < 0.05). Tukey's test showing a notable difference between AF-F ONE and ProTaper Ultimate/ProTaper Gold (p < 0.05), but not between the latter two (p>0.05).AF-F ONE significantly decreased after autoclave sterilization (p < 0.05), while ProTaper Ultimate and ProTaper Gold remained unaffected (p>0.05).


         Autoclave sterilization significantly affected the cyclic fatigue of AF-F ONE, whereas ProTaper Ultimate and ProTaper Gold demonstrated resilience.


Cyclic fatigue, ProTaper Ultimate, AF-F ONE, autoclave sterilization.


Gavini, G., Santos, M.D., Caldeira, C.L. Nickel-titanium instruments in endodontics: a concise review of the state of the art. Braz Oral Res. 2018; 32(Suppl 1): e67.

Sattapan, B., Nervo, G.J., Palamara, J.E., & Messer, H.H.. Defects in rotary nickel-titanium files after clinical use. Journal of Endodontics. 2000; 26, 161–165.

Martins, J.N.R., Silva, E.J.N.L., Marques, D., Ajuz, N., Rito Pereira, M., & Pereira da Costa, R. Characterization of the file-specific heat-treated ProTaper Ultimate rotary system. International Endodontic Journal. 2023; 56, 530–542.

Di Nardo, D., Miccoli, G., Mazzoni, A., Seracchiani, M., Gambarini, G., & Testarelli, L. Centering Ability of a New Nickel–Titanium Rotary Instruments with a Peculiar Flat-side Design: An In Vitro Study. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice.2020; 21(1), 539-542.

Karataş, E., Gündüz, H.A., Kırıcı, D.Ö., & Arslan, H. Incidence of dentinal cracks after root canal preparation with ProTaper Gold, Profile Vortex, F360, Reciproc and ProTaper Universal instruments. International Endodontic Journal,2016 ;49(9), 905-910.

Plotino, G., Costanzo, A., Grande, N.M., Petrovic, R., Testarelli, L., & Gambarini, G. Experimental evaluation on the influence of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue of new nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Journal of Endodontics.2012 ;38, 222–225.

Hilfer, P.B., Bergeron, B.E., Mayerchak, M.J., Roberts, H.W., & Jeansonne, B.G. Multiple autoclave cycle effects on cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary files produced by new manufacturing methods. Journal of Endodontics.2011; 37, 72–74.

Kim, W., Oh, S., Ryu, G.J., Kim, T.H., Kim, S.J., Kim, D.H., Lee, B.N., Kum, K.Y., Chang, S.W., & Jang, J.H. Effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue and torsional fracture resistance of NiTi rotary instruments. Odontology.2020; 108, 194–201.

Larsen, C., Watanabe, I., & Glickman, G. Cyclic fatigue analysis of a new generation of nickel titanium rotary instruments. Journal of Endodontics.2009; 35(3), 401-403.

Plotino, G., Grande, N.M., Cotti, E., Testarelli, L., & Gambarini, G. Blue treatment enhances cyclic fatigue resistance of vortex nickel-titanium rotary files. Journal of Endodontics.2014; 40, 1451–1453.

Yılmaz, K., Uslu, G., & Özyürek, T. In vitro comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex EDM, One G, and ProGlider nickel titanium glide path instruments in single and double curvature canals. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics.2017; 42(4), 282-289.

Elbatal, L.M., El Batouty, K.M., & Obeid, M.M. Effect of repeated autoclaving on cyclic fatigue of three nickel-titanium rotary instruments. ENDO (London, England).2016;10(1), 15-22.

Mohammed, A.H., & Al-Zaka, I.M. Cyclic Fatigue of Different Glide Path Systems in Single and Double Curved Simulated Canal: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2018;7(11), 72-78.

Al-Halawi, M., Mehdi, J., & Jasim, H. Evaluate the effect of canal curvature on Fracture Resistance and Cyclic Fatigue of Three NiTi Rotary Instruments (A comparative in vitro study). Journal of Oral and Dental Research.2017; 4(2).

Dioguardi, M., Arena, C., Sovereto, D., Aiuto, R., Laino, L., Illuzzi, G., Laneve, E., Raddato, B., Caponio, V.C.A., Dioguardi, A., Zhurakivska, K., Troiano, G., Muzio, L.L. Influence of sterilization procedures on the physical and mechanical properties of rotating endodontic instruments: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark. 2021;26, 1697–1713.

Viana, A.C., Gonzalez, B.M., Buono, V.T., & Bahia, M.G. Influence of sterilization on mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments. International Endodontic Journal. 2006; 39:709–715.

Yahata, Y., Yoneyama, T., Hayashi, Y., Ebihara, A., Doi, H., Hanawa, T., & Suda, H. Effect of heat treatment on transformation temperatures and bending properties of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. International Endodontic Journal. 2009; 42:621–626.

Shen, Y., Zhou, H.M., Zheng, Y.F., Peng, B., & Haapasalo, M. Current challenges and concepts of the thermomechanical treatment of nickel-titanium instruments. Journal of Endodontics. 2013; 39:163–172.

Al-Amidi, A.H., & Al-Gharrawi, H.A. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of EdgeFile X7, 2Shape, and F-one nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2023; Jan-Feb;26(1):26-30.

Phumpatrakom, P., Klinsontorn, N., Jutrakulkeeree, T., Thanarojwongsa, V., Klaisiri, A., & Aguilar, P. Effect of autoclave sterilization on cyclic fatigue of EdgeTaper platinum and ProTaper gold nickel–titanium rotary instruments: An in vitro study. Saudi Endodontic Journal. 2022; 12(1), 114-119.

Almohareb, R.A., Barakat, R.M., Algahtani, F.N., & Alkadi, M.F. Cyclic fatigue resistance of EdgeTaper Platinum, Protaper Gold, and TruNatomy Prime rotary files before and after autoclave sterilization. PeerJ. 2023; 11, e14656.

Plotino G, Grande NM, Cordaro M, Testarelli L, Gambarini G. A review of cyclic fatigue testing of nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Journal of endodontics. 2009;35(11):1469-76.

De-Deus G, Silva EJNL, Vieira VTL, Belladonna FG, Elias CN, Plotino G. Blue thermomechanical treatment optimizes fatigue resistance and flexibility of the Reciproc files. Journal of endodontics. 2017;43(3):462-6. 70.

Gambarini G, Galli M, Seracchiani M, et al. In Vivo Evaluation of Operative Torque Generated by Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments during Root Canal Preparation. Eur J Dent.2019;13:556-62.

Faus-Llácer V, Kharrat NH, Ruiz-Sánchez C, Faus-Matoses I, Zubizarreta-Macho Á, Faus-Matoses V. The Effect of Taper and Apical Diameter on the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Rotary Endodontic Files Using an Experimental Electronic Device. Appl Sci 2021;11(2):863.




How to Cite

najeeb, sarah, Yahya , M. M. ., & Al-Waeli, H. . (2024). The Influence of Autoclave Sterilization on the Resistance to Cyclic Fatigue of AF- F-ONE , ProTaper Ultimate, and ProTaper Gold NiTi Instruments (A Comparative Study): Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of NiTi Instruments After Autoclave Sterilization. Mustansiria Dental Journal, 20(1), 85–94.