Impact of stress on Geographic Tongue In Iraqi population


  • Dr. Suzan M. Abdulraheem



Geographic tongue, stress score, PSS, fissured tongue, smoking


Background:Geographic tongue or erythema migrans is fairly common benign condition that primarily affects the lateral aspect and dorsum of the tongue. The pattern of the lesion give the surface of the tongue the appearance of a map, the lesion persists for a short period in one area, disappears within a few days, and then recurs in another area with no apparent reason Although the etiology of the condition is unknown, it may be related to psychological factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between geographic tongue and stress.

Method:This study was performed on 110 individuals; 60 cases with GT and 50 cases without GT. All of them filled a questionnaire of perceived stress scale (PSS) and evaluated by a psychologist.

Results:Among 120 patients selected, 60 persons suffered from geographic tongue, showed significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and stress especially among females at their third decade.

Conclusion:According to the results, there is a significant association between stress and GT and decreasing stress in GT patients can lead to the healing of the lesion.




- Shulman JD, Carpenter WM. Prevalence and risk factors associated with geographic tongue among US adults. Oral Dis. 2006; 12:381-386.

- Assimakopoulos D, Patrikakos G, Fotika C, Elisaf M. Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue: an enigmatic oral lesion. Am J Med. 2002;113: 751-75.

- Neville B, Damm D, Allen C, Bouquot J. Oral& Maxillofacial Pathology. 7th ed. W.B. Sanders co; London: 2002. pp. 677–679.

- Greenberg MS, Glick M, DMD. Burket's oral medicine, diagnosis & treatment. 10th ed Philadelphia: BC Decker. 2003:115-6.

- Scully C, Handbook of oral disease, diagnosis& treatment.1st ed. UK, Martin Duniz Ltd.1999; 367-72.

- Miloglu O, Goregen M, Akgul M. The prevalence and risk factors in 7619 Turkish dental out patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009; 107: 29–33.

- Cawson RA. Essentials of oral pathology &oral medicine, Elsevier science.7thed, 2002: 216-42.

- Murrah VA. Diabetes Mellitus & associated oral manifestations: a review. J Oral Pathology1985; 14: 271-81.

- Redman RS, Shapiro BL, Gorlin RJ. Hereditary component in etiology of benign migratory glossitis. Am H Hum Genet 1972; 24: 124-33.

- Greenbreg M, Glick M, Ship J. Burkets Oral Medicine. 12th ed. BC Deker; London: 2008. 103–4.

- Regezi J A, Sciubba J. Oral pathology clinical pathology correlation. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders. 1999: 113-14.

- Kullaa - Mikkonen A, Kotilainen R, Alakuijala P. Sialochemistry in mucosal lesions of the tongue: electrolytes and total protein. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1986; 15: 318-21.

- Zhu JF, Kaminski MJ, Pulitzer DR. Psoriasis: pathophysiology and oral manifestations. Oral Dis 1996; 2:135-44.

- Zargari O. The prevalence and significance of fissured tongue and geographical tongue in psoriatic patients. Clin Dermatol 2006; 31:192-5.

- Pimlott SJ. Salicylic acid in alcohol in the superficial migratory glossitis treatment of benign. J Oral Med 1984; 39: 192-3.

- Boozer CH, Langland OE, Caillory MB. Benign migratory glossitis associated with lichen planus. J Oral Med 1974; 29: 58-9.

- Marks R, Radden BG. Geographic tongue: a clincopathology review. Aust J Dermatol 1981; 22: 75-9.

- Aree Jainkittivong, Robert P. Langlais. Geographic tongue: clinical characteristics of 188 cases. J Contemporary Dental Practice 2005; 113 (1).

- Jahanbani J, Sandvik L, Lyberg T, Ahlfors E. Evaluation of oral mucosal lesions in 598 referred Iranian patients. Open Dent J. 2009; 3: 42–7.

- Halperin V, Kolas S, Jefferis KR, et. al. The occurrence of fordyce spots, benign migratory glossitis, median rhomboid glossitis, and fissured tongue in 2,478 dental patients. Oral Surg Oral Med OralPathol 1953; 6: 1072-1077

- Sedano HO, Carreon Freyre I, Garza de la Garza ML, et. al. Clinical orodental abnormalities in Mexican children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 68: 300-311.

- Darwazeh AM, Pillai K. Prevalence of tongue lesions in 1013 Jordanian dental outpatients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993; 21: 323-324

- Jainkittivong A, Langlais RP. Geographic tongue: clinical characteristics of 188 cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005; 1:123-35.

- Chosack A, Zadik D, Eidelman E. The prevalence of scrotal tongue and geographic tongue in 70,359Israeli schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1974; 2: 253-257

- Voros-Balog T, Vincze N, Banoczy J. Prevalence of tongue lesions in Hungarian children. Oral Dis 2003; 9: 84-89.

- Redman RS. Prevalence of geographic tongue, fissured tongue, median rhomboid glossitis, and hairy tongue among 3,611 Minnesota school children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1970; 30: 390-395.

- Konis AB. Geographic tongue. A case report. N Y State Dent J 1992; 58: 28-29.

- Saprio SM, Shklar G. Stomatitis areata migrans. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1973; 36: 2833

- Redman RS, Vance FL, Gorlin RJ, et. al. Psychological component in the etiology of geographic tongue. J Dent Res 1966; 45: 1403-1408.

- Alikhani M, Khalighinejad N, Ghalaiani P, Khaleghi MA,Askari E, Gorsky M. Immunologic and psychological parameters associated with geographic tongue. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014;118:68-71

- Van der Waal I, Pindborg J. Diseases of the tongue. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing: 1986; 43-46.

- World Health Organization. Guide to epidemiology and diagnosis of oral mucosal disease and conditions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1980; 8: 1-26.

- Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1983; 24, 385-396.

- Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

- Banoczy J, Rigo O, Albrecht M. Prevalence study of tongue lesions in Hungarian population sample. Community Dent Oral Epidemiology 1993; 21: 224-226.

- Richardson, E.R. (1968). Incidence of geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis in 3,319 Negro college

- Yarom N, Contony U, Gorsky M. Prevalence of fissured tongue, geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis among Israeli of different ethnic origins. J Dermatol. 2004; 209 (2):88–94.

- Mumcu G, Cimilli H, Sur H, Hayran O, Atalay T. Prevalence and distribution of oral lesions: A cross- sectional study in Turkey. Oral Dis. 2004; 11:81–7.

- Hashemipour M, Rad M, Dastboos A. Frequency, Clinical Characteristics and Factors Associated with Geographic Tongue. Shiraz J Dent. 2008; 9(1):83–92.

- Banoczy J, Szabo L, Csiba A. Migratory glossitis: a clinical histologic review of seventy cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1975; 39: 113-121.

- Waltimo J. Geographic tongue during a year of oral contraceptive cycles. Br Dent J 1991; 171: 94-6.

- Eidelman E, Chosack A, Cohen T. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1976; 42: 591-6.




How to Cite

Abdulraheem, D. S. M. (2019). Impact of stress on Geographic Tongue In Iraqi population. Mustansiria Dental Journal, 12(1), 107–115.



Oral Pathology &Radiology