Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among kindergarten children aged (4-5) years old in Karbala city / Iraq


  • Dr. Dhuha M. Hassan
  • Dr. Baydaa Hussien Hussien




Key words: Dental caries, periodontal disease, gingivitis and nutrition.


Back ground: Dental caries and periodontal disease were the most common and
widely spread diseases affecting children. The nutrition may be one of the factors
affecting the severity of the oral diseases. The Aims of this study was the
assessment of the following oral diseases (dental caries, gingivitis) in addition to
assessment of oral hygiene among 4-5 years old children in Karbala city –Iraq.
Furthermore, nutritional status was assessed in relation to oral diseases.
Materials and methods: A sample of 658 children (350 males, 308 females) aged
four and five years old was selected randomly from the fourteenth kindergartens
in Karbala city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries was followed the criteria
of WHO 1987. Dental plaque was assessed using plaque index of Silness and Loe,
1964. Gingival health condition was assessed using gingival index of Loe and
Silness, 1963. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using
anthropometric measurement (height and weight) according to Body mass index
indicator with -2SD cutoff point.
Results: Caries prevalence was found to be (83%) of the total sample the mean rank
value of dmfs was higher among boys in comparison to girls with statistically no
significant difference (P>0.05). The value of dmfs increased with age with
statistically highly significant difference (p<0.01).The mean rank values of dental
plaque and gingival indices for total boys were found to be higher than total girls
with statistically highly significant differences (P<0.01). Recording of this study
demonstrated that 100% of children had dental plaque and gingival inflammation.
Positive highly significant correlations were recorded between dental caries with
dental plaque and gingival indices. The prevalence of malnutrition described by
Body mass index indicator was (3.2%). According to nutritional status indicator
Body mass index-for-age, it was found that the wasted children had higher value
of dmfs than well nourished children with statistically no significant differences
(P>0.05). The plaque and gingival indices were higher among well nourished
children than among wasted children with statistically highly significant
differences (P<0.01).The correlation coefficient between body mass index with
dental caries, plaque index and gingival index were very weak and statistically not
significant (p>0.05).
Conclusions: High prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis was recorded indicating
the need of public and preventive programs among kindergarten children.




How to Cite

Hassan, D. D. M., & Hussien, D. B. H. (2019). Oral health status in relation to nutritional status among kindergarten children aged (4-5) years old in Karbala city / Iraq. Mustansiria Dental Journal, 14(1), 72–79. https://doi.org/10.32828/mdj.v14i1.762



Pedodontics, Orthodontics & Prevention Dentistry