Modified CAD/CAM Wax: The Dimension Accuracy of Wax/Metal Copy Patterns


  • Baidaa Ahmed Abd Allah College of Health and Medical Technology, Middle Technical University
  • Saja Ali Muhsin College of Health and Medical Technology, Middle Technical University



Machinable wax, Dimensional accuracy, Machinable wax; Dimensional accuracy; CAD/CAM wax; Recycling, Key word: Influence of recycling, load deflection, orthodontic nickel titanium


Background: In dentistry, different researchers in various studies have tried various methods and techniques to reuse, recycle and manage the waste of dental materials. CAD/CAM wax could be recycled effectively without any degeneration of its original properties by refreshing with new materials using simple techniques. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the new modified machinable dental wax for CAD/CAM purposes.

Materials and Methods: In the present study three experimental blank discs were performed using the same technique for each type, but with different weight/compositions of dental and mineral waxes. A master die was scanned and designed for the crown copy patterns. Ten identical wax copings were milled for each experimental group (Type I, Type II, and Type III) to compare with the control (Dentify-Germany and Zotion™-China) discs. Wax patterns were cast into metal copies to assess the differences in accuracy values of the axial, proximal, and occlusal surfaces between the wax patterns and metal coping.

Result: Non- significant differences were noticed in the thickness accuracy between the wax pattern and the metal copy of the experimental discs of Type (I) and Type (II) that were manually produced compared to the commercial discs (P>0.05). While, Type III showed statistically significant differences were noticed between the wax and metal patterns, at different surfaces except in mesial surface (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Wax patterns fabricated using a new version of machinable wax produced by recycling some CAD/CAM wax with different fresh materials showed acceptable dimensional accuracy. Also, it seems to have few significant differences for CAD/CAM purposes in terms of patterns thickness than those obtained available and conventional waxTM.



AHMED, B. A. A. & MUHSIN, S. A. 2021. Evaluation of the effect of a modified version of machinable dental wax for CAD-CAM purposes. Journal of Oral and Dental Research, 8, 44-52.

ABDUO, J., LYONS, K. & SWAIN, M. 2010. Fit of zirconia fixed partial denture: a systematic review. Journal of oral rehabilitation, 37, 866-876.

ARORA, S., MITTAL, S. & DOGRA, V. 2017. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview. Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences, 6, 22.

ASHBY, M. & JONES, D. 1995. Engineering Materials,. part I. WNT Warsaw.

BEMBLAGE, O. & KARUNAKAR, D. B. A study on the blended wax patterns in investment casting process. Proceedings of the world Congress on Engineering, 2011. 6-8.

BIDRA, A. S., TAYLOR, T. D. & AGAR, J. R. 2013. Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 109, 361-366.

BIERNACKI, R., HARATYM, R., BAŁKOWIEC, A., WAWULSKA-MAREK, P., MATYSIAK, H., ZDUNEK, J. & KURZYDŁOWSKI, K. 2015. Evaluation of physical properties of wax mixtures obtained from recycling of patterns used in precision casting. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 60.

BYUN, S. S. 2020. Dimensional Stability of CAD/CAM Patterns: A Longitudinal Study.

BIDRA, A. S., TAYLOR, T. D. & AGAR, J. R. 2013. Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 109, 361-366.

ÇEHRELI, M. C., KöKAT, A. M. & AKCA, K. 2009. CAD/CAM Zirconia vs. slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia all-ceramic crowns: 2-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 17, 49-55.

DAVIDOWITZ, G. & KOTICK, P. G. 2011. The use of CAD/CAM in dentistry. Dental Clinics of North America, 55, 559-70, ix.

FACCENDA, V. 2003. Handbook on Investment Casting. London: World Gold Council, 56-57.

FAN, P. & MCGILL, S. 1989. How much waste do dentists generate? Journal of the California Dental Association, 17, 39-40.

FARJOOD, E., VOJDANI, M., TORABI, K. & KHALEDI, A. A. R. 2017. Marginal and internal fit of metal copings fabricated with rapid prototyping and conventional waxing. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 117, 164-170.

FATHI, H. M., AL-MASOODY, A. H., EL-GHEZAWI, N. & JOHNSON, A. 2016. The Accuracy of Fit of Crowns Made From Wax Patterns Produced Conventionally (Hand Formed) and Via CAD/CAM Technology. The European journal of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry, 24, 10-17.

KIM, S.-B., KIM, N.-H., KIM, J.-H. & MOON, H.-S. 2018. Evaluation of the fit of metal copings fabricated using stereolithography. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 120, 693-698.

MIYAZAKI, T. & HOTTA, Y. 2011. CAD/CAM systems available for the fabrication of crown and bridge restorations. Australian dental journal, 56, 97-106.

MANSOUR, F. 2021. Comparison of the Internal fit of conventional casting versus CAD wax (In-vitro Study). Egyptian Dental Journal, 67, 583-587.

MOREY, E. F. 1991. Dimensional accuracy of small gold alloy castings. Part 1. A brief history and the behaviour of inlay waxes. Australian dental journal, 36, 302-309.

MUMFORD, G. & PHILLIPS, R. W. 1958. Dimensional change in wax patterns during setting of gypsum investments. Journal of dental research, 37, 351-358.

PARK, J.-Y., KIM, H.-Y., KIM, J.-H., KIM, J.-H. & KIM, W.-C. 2015. Comparison of prosthetic models produced by traditional and additive manufacturing methods. The journal of advanced prosthodontics, 7, 294-302.

RAJAGOPAL, P., CHITRE, V. & ARAS, M. A. 2012. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 23, 152.

SHARMA, S., THAKUR, S. L., JOSHI, S. K. & KULKARNI, S. S. 2014. Measurement of gingival thickness using digital vernier caliper and ultrasonographic method: a comparative study. Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry, 5, 138-143.

STRUB, J. R., REKOW, E. D. & WITKOWSKI, S. 2006. Computer-aided design and fabrication of dental restorations: current systems and future possibilities. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 137, 1289-1296.

SUN, J. & ZHANG, F. Q. 2012. The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics. Journal of Prosthodontics: Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry, 21, 641-644.

TAN, P. L., GRATTON, D. G., DIAZ‐ARNOLD, A. M. & HOLMES, D. C. 2008. An in vitro comparison of vertical marginal gaps of CAD/CAM titanium and conventional cast restorations. Journal of prosthodontics, 17, 378-383.

TAŞCıOĞLU, S. & AKAR, N. 2003. A novel alternative to the additives in investment casting pattern wax compositions. Materials & design, 24, 693-698.

THOPEGOWDA, N. B., SHENOY, K., SHANKARNARAYANA, R. K., KUKKILA, J., VADDYA, S. B. & GINGIPALLI, K. 2013. Recycling of materials used in dentistry with reference to its economical and environmental aspects. Int J Health Rehabil Sci, 2, 140-5.

VENKATESH, K. V. & NANDINI, V. V. 2013. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, 13, 389-392.

VOJDANI, M., TORABI, K., FARJOOD, E. & KHALEDI, A. 2013. Comparison the marginal and internal fit of metal copings cast from wax patterns fabricated by CAD/CAM and conventional wax up techniques. Journal of Dentistry, 14, 118.

WITKOWSKI, S. 2005. (CAD-)/CAM in dental technology. Quintessence Dent Technol, 28, 169-184.

XU, D., XIANG, N. & WEI, B. 2014. The marginal fit of selective laser melting–fabricated metal crowns: An in vitro study. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry, 112, 1437-1440.

ZALEY, M. Y. 2013. Mechanical Properties Study of Recycled Machinable Wax.




How to Cite

Ahmed Abd Allah, B. ., & Ali Muhsin, S. (2022). Modified CAD/CAM Wax: The Dimension Accuracy of Wax/Metal Copy Patterns. Mustansiria Dental Journal, 18(1), 75–90.

Most read articles by the same author(s)