Development of Microstructure on Titanium Implant Surface Using CO2 Laser Processing

Authors

  • Ali N. Ahmed Hussein 3Lecturers, Prosthetic Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad
  • Raghdaa K. Jassim 3Lecturers, Prosthetic Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad
  • Rola W. Abdul-Razzaq Professor, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32828/mdj.v20i1.1146

Keywords:

Direct laser texturing (DLT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ergy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), (BIC) bone-implant contact, atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Abstract

Background: Dental biomaterials made of titanium are commonly used. It depends on the implant surface texture to improve fixation and prevent the unwanted adhesion of bone cells. This study aimed to investigate whether continuous laser beam carbon dioxide (CNC - CO2) lasers produce specific textures on titanium surfaces with micrometer-sized indentations that influence cell behavior. Materials and method: (CNC - CO2) red laser device; with a fundamental wavelength of λ=10600 nm and power pulses of 34 W were applied, and textures on the surface of titanium discs were achieved.  Results: Excellent degrees of uniformity and repeatability were achieved for the desired portions of the surface by creating different surface textures. The surface topography and chemical composition of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface roughness measurements. Also, a laser power of 34 watts raised the surface roughness, Ra (1.71 nm), and Rz (1.99 nm). Conclusion: Titanium surface textures with unique qualities can be formed in response to an increased heat input. When excessive laser power was used, the measured roughness increased because of instantaneous re-melting. The use of a right continuous-wave (CNC - CO2) laser on titanium used in dental implants can form specific surface textures.

References

Spencer, N.D. (2011). Tailoring surfaces: Modifying surface composition and structure for applications in tribology, biology, and catalysis. Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.

Sonsaree, S., Asaoka, T., Jiajitsawat, S., Aguirre, H. and Tanaka, K. (2017). VCHP-ORC power generation from low-grade industrial waste heat combined with solar water heating system: Power generation and CO2 emission in the industrial estate of Thailand. Cogent Engineering, 4(1).

Lee, H., Lim, C.H.J., Low, M.J., Tham, N., Murukeshan, (2017). Lasers in additive manufacturing: A review. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, 4(3), pp.307–322.

Mayer, A. (2012). Laser materials processing market has reached a record high. Advanced Optical Technologies, 1(5).

Markovic, V., Rohrbacher, A., Hofmann, P., Pallmann, W., Pierrot, (2015). 160 W 800 fs Yb: YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier without CPA. Optics Express, 23(20), p.25883.

Li, W.D., Yan, C.P., Wu, Y., Weng, Z.B., Yin, F.Z., (2014). Osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation stimulating activities of the main components of Fructus Psoraleae corylifoliae. Phytomedicine, 21(4), pp.400-405.

Figiel, P. (2015). Ocena wpływu przygotowania powierzchni na właściwości korozyjne kompozytów cermetalicznych w osnowie stali AISI 316L. INŻYNIERIA MATERIAŁOWA, 1(6), pp.161–164.

Qin, L., Lin, P., Zhang, Y., Dong, G., and Zeng, Q. (2013). Influence of surface wettability on the tribological properties of laser textured Co-Cr-Mo alloy in aqueous bovine serum albumin solution. Applied Surface Science, 268, pp.79–86.

Hu, T., Hu, L., and Ding, Q. (2012). Effective solution for the tribological problems of Ti-6Al-4V: Combination of laser surface texturing and solid lubricant film. Surface and Coatings Technology, 206(24), pp.5060–5066.

Vilar, R. (2016). Laser surface modification of biomaterials: techniques and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Woodhead Publishing.

Pfleging, W., Kumari, R., Besser, H., Scharnweber, (2015). Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V): Part 1-Surface characterization. Applied Surface Science, 355, pp.104-111.

Chen, J., Bly, R.A., Saad, M.M., AL-khodary, M.A., (2011). In-vivo study of adhesion and bone growth around implanted laser groove/RGD-functionalized Ti-6Al-4V pins in rabbit femurs. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 31(5), pp.826–832.

Heimann, R.B., and Lehmann, H.D. (2015). Bioceramic coatings for medical implants: trends and techniques. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-Vch Verlag Gmbh & Co. Kgaa.

Huang, C-C, Jiang, C-C, Hsieh, C-H, Tsai, C-J & Chiang, H (2015), Local bone quality affects the outcome of prosthetic total knee arthroplasty, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 240–248.

Li, Y., Yang, W., Li, X., Zhang, X., Wang, C., Meng, X., (2015). Improving Osteointegration and Osteogenesis of Three-Dimensional Porous Ti6Al4V Scaffolds by Polydopamine-Assisted Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7(10), pp.5715–5724.

Sidambe, A. (2014). Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review. Materials, 7(12), pp.8168–8188.

Akinlami, J.O. (2012). Reflection coefficient and optical conductivity of gallium nitride GaN. Semiconductor Physics Quantum Electronics and Optoelectronics, 15(3), pp.281–284.

Shruti, S., Andreatta, F., Furlani, E., Marin, E., (2016). Cerium, gallium, and zinc-containing mesoporous bioactive glass coating deposited on titanium alloy. Applied Surface Science, [online] 378, pp.216–223.

Ramakrishnaiah, R., AL kheraif, A.A., Mohammad, A., (2017). Preliminary fabrication and characterization of electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V customized dental implant. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(4), pp.787–796.

Wang, M., Wu, Y., Lu, S., Chen, T., Zhao, Y., Chen, H. (2016). Fabrication and characterization of selective laser melting printed Ti–6Al–4V alloys subjected to heat treatment for customized implant design. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, 26(6), pp.671–677.

Tamaddon, M., Samizadeh, S., Wang, L., Blunn, (2017). Intrinsic Osteoinductivity of Porous Titanium Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering. International Journal of Biomaterials, pp.1–11.

Zhang, J., Han, H., Tian, W., Lv, L., Wang, Q. and Wei, Z. (2013). Diode-pumped 88-fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:Y_3Ga_5O_12 crystal laser. Optics Express, 21(24), p.29867.

Busuioc, C., Voicu, G., Zuzu, I.D., Miu, D., Sima, C., (2017). Vitroceramic coatings deposited by laser ablation on Ti-Zr substrates for implantable medical applications with improved biocompatibility. Ceramics International, 43(7), pp.5498–5504.

Kawai, T., Takemoto, M., Fujibayashi, S., Akiyama, H., (2014). Osteoinduction on Acid and Heat Treated Porous Ti Metal Samples in Canine Muscle. PLoS ONE, 9(2), p.e88366.

Bououdina, M., Rashdan, S., Bobet, J.L. and Ichiyanagi, Y. (2013). Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Journal of Nanomaterials, [online] 2013, pp.1–4.

Yang, D.F. (2012). Pulsed Laser Deposition of Pseudocapacitive Metal Oxide Thin Films for Supercapacitor Applications. Materials Science Forum, 706–709, pp.884–889.

Amin Yavari, S., Ahmadi, S.M., Van der stok, J., (2014). Effects of bio-functionalizing surface treatments on the mechanical behavior of open porous titanium biomaterials. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 36, pp.109–119.

Govindarajan, P., Khassawna, T., Kampschulte, M., (2013). Implications of combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment on mineral, microarchitectural, biomechanical, and matrix properties of rat bone. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 94(6), pp.387–398.

N. Ahmed Hussein, Ali, and Raghdaa K Jassim. (2019). “Application of Continuous Wave ND-YAG Laser for Improving Surface Roughness of Cp-Titanium.” Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 13 (4): 1096–1100.

Wen, M., Wen, C., Hodgson, P. and Li, Y. (2012). Thermal oxidation behavior of bulk titanium with the nanocrystalline surface layer. Corrosion Science, 59, pp.352–359.

Cei, S., Karapetsa, D., Aleo, E. and Graziani, F. (2015). Protein Adsorption on a Laser-Modified Titanium Implant Surface. Implant Dentistry, p.134-141.

Adams, D.P., Murphy, R.D., Saiz, D.J., (2014). Nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of titanium: Oxide growth and effects on underlying metal. Surface and Coatings Technology, 248, pp.38–45.

Vázquez-Martínez, J.M., Salguero, J., Botana, F.J., (2013). Metrological Evaluation of the Tribological Behavior of Laser Surface Treated Ti6Al4V Alloy. Procedia Engineering, 63, pp.752–760.

Horn, A., Kalmbach, C.-C., Moreno, J.G., Schütz, V., (2012). Laser-Surface-Treatment for Photovoltaic Applications. Physics Procedia, 39, pp.709–716.

Erdoǧan, M., Öktem, B., Kalaycioǧlu, H., Yavaş, S., (2011). Texturing of titanium (Ti6Al4V) medical implant surfaces with MHz-repetition-rate femtosecond and picosecond Yb-doped fiber lasers. Optics Express, 19(11), p.10986.

Szmukler-moncler, S., Bischof, M., Nedir, R. and Ermrich, M. (2010). Titanium hydride and hydrogen concentration in acid-etched commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy implants: a comparative analysis of five implant systems. Clinical Oral Implants Research.

Salguero, J., Batista, M., Sanchez Galindez, (2011). An XPS Study of the Stratified Built-up Layers Developed onto the Tool Surface in the Dry Drilling of Ti Alloys. Advanced Materials Research, 223, pp.564–572.

Vera, M.L., Avalos, M.C., Rosenberger, M.R., (2017). Evaluation of the influence of texture and microstructure of titanium substrates on TiO 2 anodic coatings at 60 V. Materials Characterization, 131, pp.348–358.

N Ahmed Hussein, Ali, and Raghdaa K Jassim. (2020). “Development of Hatching Microstructure on Cp-Titanium Surface by Fiber Optic Laser Processing.” Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 11 (4): 2000–2006.

Cicek, S., Karaca, A., Torun, I., Onses, M.S. and Uzer, B. (2019). The relationship of surface roughness and wettability of 316L stainless steel implants with plastic deformation mechanisms. Materials Today: Proceedings, 7, pp.389–393.

Ahmed Hussain, Ali Nima, and Raghdaa Kareem Jassim. 2019. “The Role of Laser Texturing and Coating of Commercial Pure Titanium Implants with Silicon Dioxide and Gallium Nitrate in Enhancing Osseointigration in Osteoporosis (in Vitro and in Vivo Study).” PhD Thesis, College of Dentistry at the University of Baghdad.

Downloads

Published

30.06.2024

How to Cite

N. Ahmed Hussein, A. ., K. Jassim, R. ., & W. Abdul-Razzaq, R. . (2024). Development of Microstructure on Titanium Implant Surface Using CO2 Laser Processing. Mustansiria Dental Journal, 20(1), 42–52. https://doi.org/10.32828/mdj.v20i1.1146